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Free and combined chlorine - understand the difference

Free and combined chlorine - understand the difference

3186 View - 26-09-2017, 4:59 pm
Understanding the difference between free and combined chlorine is crucial to understanding water quality after chlorination. Testing the water for both free and combined chlorine allows you to know whether the water you've chlorinated is of sufficient quality to drink or disinfect your process, depending upon your application.

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  • Controlling chloramination in drinking water

    Controlling chloramination in drinking water
    Dr Palin developed the DPD method of measuring free and total chlorine in the 1950’s and described at the time how the colorimetric method can suffer from interference from monochloramine during free chlorine readings. One of the largest providers of potable water in Spain has experienced these difficulties in controlling their chemical dosing in chloraminated water. They found sporadic spikes in their free chlorine concentration that they ...
    1812 view - 26-09-2017, 3:54 pm
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  • Water quality in renal dialysis

    Water quality in renal dialysis
    Chloramine testing of water used for haemodialysis is mandatory as prescribed in ISO 13959:2014. The standard refers to testing for total chlorine, however understanding the difference between free chlorine and combined chlorine can help when making the decision as to which test method to use.
    1704 view - 19-10-2017, 1:25 pm
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  • Methods for determining chlorine dioxide and its oxychlorine by-products in water

    Methods for determining chlorine dioxide and its oxychlorine by-products in water
    The analysis of chlorine dioxide and its oxychlorine by products in water is a difficult topic due to the volatility of chlorine dioxide and to the interferences from other species with standard test methods. In the real samples, this is further complicated as chlorine dioxide is often used in a system which is dynamic and therefore sampling is also important.
    2796 view - 20-10-2017, 5:08 pm
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  • 10 things you need to know about monitoring Total Residual Oxidants

    10 things you need to know about monitoring Total Residual Oxidants
    Total Residual Oxidants (TRO) Guidelines across the globe The problems of transient species
    2637 view - 20-09-2017, 3:18 pm
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  • 7 steps to ensure safe water in hydrotherapy

    7 steps to ensure safe water in hydrotherapy
    Water used in hydrotherapy must be safe and clean to protect patients who have compromised immune systems. The 7 key recommendations will ensure to reduce risks of new infections from inadvertent exposures to environmental pathogens for patients recovering from many conditions.
    4751 view - 26-09-2017, 4:25 pm
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  • When and how to use the DPD method in Pool & Spa?

    When and how to use the DPD method in Pool & Spa?
    Pool operators need to be confident that the sanitizer concentration is correctly dosed and controlled, for the health and comfort of bathers. Disinfection of swimming pools is usually achieved using chlorine and adequate free chlorine is needed to prevent infections, while eye irritation is minimized by keeping the combined chlorine residual as low as possible
    8794 view - 17-10-2017, 4:23 pm
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  • Chlorine Alternatives In Fresh Produce production

    Chlorine Alternatives In Fresh Produce production
    Understanding your disinfectant – the switch from chlorine to chlorine dioxide in the production of fresh produce
    6257 view - 29-09-2017, 3:24 pm
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  • Measuring Sodium Content in Chili Sauce with LAQUAtwin Na-11 Pocket Meter

    Measuring Sodium Content in Chili Sauce with LAQUAtwin Na-11 Pocket Meter
    Chili sauces may contain high amount of sodium from dissolved salts. To measure the sodium content in chili sauce, simply dilute a weighed sample with distilled or deionized water and then place some drops onto the sensor of LAQUAtwin Na-11 pocket meter. The meter measures the sodium content accurately and displays the result in either parts per million (ppm) or mg/L in just a few seconds.
    3942 view - 23-08-2017, 1:25 pm
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  • Conductivity Cell Care and Maintenance Procedures

    Conductivity Cell Care and Maintenance Procedures
    Conductivity cells, also called conductivity electrodes or probes, are constructed with metal electrodes placed at a fixed distance in either glass or plastic body and surrounded by an outer tube. The distance between the electrodes divided by their surface area is known as cell constant. HORIBA offers two-electrode conductivity cells with cell constants expressed in cm-1 and m-1 units.
    2920 view - 13-07-2017, 4:11 pm
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  • Hãng Horiba Nhật Bản ra mắt phần mềm LAQUA 21 CFR Part 11

    Hãng Horiba Nhật Bản ra mắt phần mềm LAQUA 21 CFR Part 11
    Hãng Horiba Nhật Bản vừa cho ra mắt phần mềm mới mang tên LAQUA 21 CFR Part 11, sản phẩm được sử dụng kết hợp với các máy đo LAQUA để bàn màn hình cảm ứng, đồng thời đáp ứng đầy đủ các quy chuẩn về việc lưu trữ hồ sơ điện tử và chữ kí điện tử (Electronics Records; Electronic Signatures) được nêu rõ trong Phần 11 của Bộ Luật Liên Bang Điều ...
    1773 view - 08-06-2017, 5:14 pm
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  • Quick Nutrient Analysis in Strawberry Production

    Quick Nutrient Analysis in Strawberry Production
    Regular monitoring of nutrient levels such as nitrate (NO3-), potassium (K+) and calcium (Ca2+) in plant petioles, soil solution, irrigation water, and drain water produces not only good yield and fruit quality, but also reduces fertilizer cost and mitigates environmental hazards. The LAQUAtwin pocket meters are the perfect tools for testing as they directly measure samples and provide results in just few seconds allowing growers to identify and ...
    3471 view - 10-05-2017, 5:30 pm
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  • 2675 view - 09-05-2017, 8:58 am
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  • 1938 view - 09-05-2017, 9:11 am
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  • Chemical oxygen demand testing by Palintest COD/2000 Tubetests tubes

    Chemical oxygen demand testing by Palintest COD/2000 Tubetests tubes
    Chemical oxygen demand is a vital test for assessing the quality of effluents and waste waters prior to discharge. The Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) test predicts the oxygen requirement of the effluent and is used for monitoring and control of discharges, and for assessing treatment plant performance.
    4968 view - 08-05-2017, 5:05 pm
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